Iontophoresis for the localised delivery of drugs through skin or for non-invasive, remote monitoring of patients by extraction of blood-borne components through skin could allow a new generation of medical devices to be developed for low-cost healthcare. Iontophoresis systems in existence today are generally not very portable and too expensive for all world markets. Accordingly, a low-cost, low-power, miniature and programmable device was developed and evaluated which can be programmed to deliver various current profiles during iontophoresis. It can provide a range of current (1-300 μA) of various signal waveforms (dc, pulsed dc, bipolar dc and pulsed bipolar dc) of the type required for iontophoresis. Evaluation showed that this device provides for precise regulation of the magnitude and waveform of a current. The current can be maintained over a wide range of impedance, important for use in medical application, and is independent of the battery voltage.
Ching, T. S. S., Camilleri, I., & Connolly, P. (2004). A low-cost, programmable device for versatile current delivery in iontophoresis applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 106(2), 534-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2004.07.022