A hybrid simulation modelling framework for combining system dynamics and agent-based models

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4 Citations (Scopus)
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System dynamics (SD), discrete event simulation (DES) and agent-based model (ABM) are three different simulation modelling methods widely applied to support decision-making in complex systems across various disciplines. However, single simulation modelling approaches can face significant challenges representing the multi-dimensional nature of complex systems composed of interactive and interconnected constituents with dynamic behaviours. Combining different simulation methods offer an opportunity to overcome these challenges and to capture important characteristics and behaviours of such systems. Despite the growing interest and popularity in this approach, guidance for designing and utilizing hybrid models, especially for those combining SD and ABM, is scanty. This paper aims to review and consolidate the existing theoretical guidance/frameworks on combining these two simulation methods. Based on this literature review, we propose an initial framework for combining SD and ABM.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2020
EventOperational Research Society Simulation Workshop 2020 - Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
Duration: 31 Mar 20201 Apr 2020


WorkshopOperational Research Society Simulation Workshop 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • system dynamics
  • agent-based model
  • hybrid simulation
  • theoretical frameworks


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