A human ecological approach to tourism interactions

D.A. Fennell, R. Butler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Building on the previous work of Budowski, Murphy and Butler, this paper develops a conceptual framework that examines tourism industry relationships from a human ecological perspective. In particular, predation, competition, neutrality and symbiosis are used to illustrate that tourism industry stakeholders (i.e., various types of tourism, operators, local people, and other land users) value and use resources differently and, in doing so, place varying levels of pressure on each other and the resource base. Human ecology is identified and discussed as a field of research that holds potential in strengthening our understanding of tourism's human ecological interactions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)197-210
    Number of pages13
    JournalInternational Journal of Tourism Research
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • ecology
    • tourism
    • human ecology
    • hospitality industry


    Dive into the research topics of 'A human ecological approach to tourism interactions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this