A high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager for time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Yinan Wang, Hui Xu, Qingjiang Li, Nan Li, Zhengxu Huang, Zhen Zhou, Husheng Liu, Zhaolin Sun, Xin Xu, Hongqi Yu, Haijun Liu, David D U Li, Xi Wang, Xiuzhen Dong, Wei Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

RATIONALE Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)-based acquisition systems are widely applied in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) due to their ability to record the signal intensity of all ions within the same pulse. However, the acquisition system raises the requirement for data throughput, along with increasing the conversion rate and resolution of the ADC. It is therefore of considerable interest to develop a high-performance real-time acquisition system, which can relieve the limitation of data throughput. METHODS We present in this work a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module. Two optimization strategies are implemented using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to enhance the efficiency of the real-time processing. A pipeline procedure is used to reduce the time consumption of the accumulation strategy. To realize continuous data transfer, a high-efficiency transmission strategy is developed, based on a ping-pong procedure. RESULTS The digital signal averager features good responsiveness, analog bandwidth and dynamic performance. The optimal effective number of bits reaches 6.7 bits. For a 32 μs record length, the averager can realize 100% efficiency with an extraction frequency below 31.23 kHz by modifying the number of accumulation steps. In unit time, the averager yields superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with data accumulation in a computer. CONCLUSIONS The digital signal averager is combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The efficiency of the real-time processing is tested by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ordinary printed materials. In these experiments, 22 kinds of compounds are detected, and the dynamic range exceeds 3 orders of magnitude. 

LanguageEnglish
Pages1155-1167
Number of pages13
JournalRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Volume27
Issue number10
Early online date16 Apr 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2013

Fingerprint

Mass spectrometry
Mass spectrometers
Digital to analog conversion
Throughput
Volatile Organic Compounds
Data transfer
Processing
Ionization
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
Signal to noise ratio
Signal processing
Photons
Pipelines
Vacuum
Ions
Bandwidth
Experiments

Keywords

  • digital signal averager
  • signal conditioner
  • analog bandwidth
  • dynamic performance

Cite this

Wang, Yinan ; Xu, Hui ; Li, Qingjiang ; Li, Nan ; Huang, Zhengxu ; Zhou, Zhen ; Liu, Husheng ; Sun, Zhaolin ; Xu, Xin ; Yu, Hongqi ; Liu, Haijun ; Li, David D U ; Wang, Xi ; Dong, Xiuzhen ; Gao, Wei. / A high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager for time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2013 ; Vol. 27, No. 10. pp. 1155-1167.
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abstract = "RATIONALE Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)-based acquisition systems are widely applied in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) due to their ability to record the signal intensity of all ions within the same pulse. However, the acquisition system raises the requirement for data throughput, along with increasing the conversion rate and resolution of the ADC. It is therefore of considerable interest to develop a high-performance real-time acquisition system, which can relieve the limitation of data throughput. METHODS We present in this work a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module. Two optimization strategies are implemented using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to enhance the efficiency of the real-time processing. A pipeline procedure is used to reduce the time consumption of the accumulation strategy. To realize continuous data transfer, a high-efficiency transmission strategy is developed, based on a ping-pong procedure. RESULTS The digital signal averager features good responsiveness, analog bandwidth and dynamic performance. The optimal effective number of bits reaches 6.7 bits. For a 32 μs record length, the averager can realize 100{\%} efficiency with an extraction frequency below 31.23 kHz by modifying the number of accumulation steps. In unit time, the averager yields superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with data accumulation in a computer. CONCLUSIONS The digital signal averager is combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The efficiency of the real-time processing is tested by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ordinary printed materials. In these experiments, 22 kinds of compounds are detected, and the dynamic range exceeds 3 orders of magnitude. ",
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Wang, Y, Xu, H, Li, Q, Li, N, Huang, Z, Zhou, Z, Liu, H, Sun, Z, Xu, X, Yu, H, Liu, H, Li, DDU, Wang, X, Dong, X & Gao, W 2013, 'A high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager for time-of-flight mass spectrometry' Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1155-1167. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6553

A high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager for time-of-flight mass spectrometry. / Wang, Yinan; Xu, Hui; Li, Qingjiang; Li, Nan; Huang, Zhengxu; Zhou, Zhen; Liu, Husheng; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Xin; Yu, Hongqi; Liu, Haijun; Li, David D U; Wang, Xi; Dong, Xiuzhen; Gao, Wei.

In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 27, No. 10, 30.05.2013, p. 1155-1167.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager for time-of-flight mass spectrometry

AU - Wang, Yinan

AU - Xu, Hui

AU - Li, Qingjiang

AU - Li, Nan

AU - Huang, Zhengxu

AU - Zhou, Zhen

AU - Liu, Husheng

AU - Sun, Zhaolin

AU - Xu, Xin

AU - Yu, Hongqi

AU - Liu, Haijun

AU - Li, David D U

AU - Wang, Xi

AU - Dong, Xiuzhen

AU - Gao, Wei

PY - 2013/5/30

Y1 - 2013/5/30

N2 - RATIONALE Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)-based acquisition systems are widely applied in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) due to their ability to record the signal intensity of all ions within the same pulse. However, the acquisition system raises the requirement for data throughput, along with increasing the conversion rate and resolution of the ADC. It is therefore of considerable interest to develop a high-performance real-time acquisition system, which can relieve the limitation of data throughput. METHODS We present in this work a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module. Two optimization strategies are implemented using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to enhance the efficiency of the real-time processing. A pipeline procedure is used to reduce the time consumption of the accumulation strategy. To realize continuous data transfer, a high-efficiency transmission strategy is developed, based on a ping-pong procedure. RESULTS The digital signal averager features good responsiveness, analog bandwidth and dynamic performance. The optimal effective number of bits reaches 6.7 bits. For a 32 μs record length, the averager can realize 100% efficiency with an extraction frequency below 31.23 kHz by modifying the number of accumulation steps. In unit time, the averager yields superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with data accumulation in a computer. CONCLUSIONS The digital signal averager is combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The efficiency of the real-time processing is tested by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ordinary printed materials. In these experiments, 22 kinds of compounds are detected, and the dynamic range exceeds 3 orders of magnitude. 

AB - RATIONALE Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)-based acquisition systems are widely applied in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) due to their ability to record the signal intensity of all ions within the same pulse. However, the acquisition system raises the requirement for data throughput, along with increasing the conversion rate and resolution of the ADC. It is therefore of considerable interest to develop a high-performance real-time acquisition system, which can relieve the limitation of data throughput. METHODS We present in this work a high-efficiency real-time digital signal averager, consisting of a signal conditioner, a data conversion module and a signal processing module. Two optimization strategies are implemented using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to enhance the efficiency of the real-time processing. A pipeline procedure is used to reduce the time consumption of the accumulation strategy. To realize continuous data transfer, a high-efficiency transmission strategy is developed, based on a ping-pong procedure. RESULTS The digital signal averager features good responsiveness, analog bandwidth and dynamic performance. The optimal effective number of bits reaches 6.7 bits. For a 32 μs record length, the averager can realize 100% efficiency with an extraction frequency below 31.23 kHz by modifying the number of accumulation steps. In unit time, the averager yields superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with data accumulation in a computer. CONCLUSIONS The digital signal averager is combined with a vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The efficiency of the real-time processing is tested by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ordinary printed materials. In these experiments, 22 kinds of compounds are detected, and the dynamic range exceeds 3 orders of magnitude. 

KW - digital signal averager

KW - signal conditioner

KW - analog bandwidth

KW - dynamic performance

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