A full factorial numerical investigation and validation of precision end milling process for hardened tool steel

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Tool steel materials have poor machinability, as the high hardness of the material will cause high cutting forces, premature failure of the cutting tools, and is also associated with machining induced tensile stresses within the work piece. Due to high experimental costs, there is no recent research on end milling tool steel, using full factorial experimental or numerical design. A 3D FE-model of a precision end milling process with a two flute ball nose cutter were established in this paper. The FE-Model used a subroutine to model hardening realised through the Johnson-Cook model, additionally were a material removal criteria developed and implemented. Through full factorial numerical simulations the influence of cutting parameters on cutting force of H13 tool steel was studied. Depth of cut was found to be the most influential machining parameter on cutting forces followed by feed rate and surface speed. Four milling experiments were carried out to validate the simulation results. It was found that the simulation and the experiments had a good agreement on the cutting forces. The validated FEA model can be used for further studies on residual stress or temperatures and to optimise the cutting process.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2017
Event17th euspen International Conference & Exhibition - Hanover Congress Centre, Hanover, Germany
Duration: 29 May 20172 Jun 2017


Conference17th euspen International Conference & Exhibition
Internet address



  • FEM
  • end milling
  • hardening
  • tool steel
  • HSM

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