A cross-sectional study examining the nature and extent of interprofessional education in schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom

Clare Depasquale, Scott Cunningham, Sabrina Anne Jacob, Anne Boyter, Jane Portlock, Ailsa Power, Brian Addison

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Abstract

Background: Interprofessional education can prepare the workforce for collaborative practice in complex health and social care systems.
Aim: To examine the nature and extent of interprofessional education in schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom.
Method: An online questionnaire was developed using systems theory, published literature and input from an interprofessional expert panel; it included closed and open-ended questions and a demographic section. Following piloting, it was distributed to 31 schools of pharmacy. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data, a content analysis approach for qualitative data.
Results: Ten schools of pharmacy responded. All reported delivering compulsory interprofessional education. Most (80%) reported an interprofessional steering group overseeing development. Formative and/or summative assessment varied depending on year of study. Mechanism and purpose of evaluation varied with respondents reporting Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model Levels 1-3 (100%;80%;70%). Two themes were identified: “Variation in Interprofessional Education Approaches and Opportunities” and “Factors Influencing Development and Implementation of Interprofessional Education”. Formal teaching was mainly integrated into other modules; various pedagogic approaches and topics were used for campus-based activities. Respondents referred to planned interprofessional education during practice-based placements; some still at pilot stage. Overall, respondents agreed that practice-based placements offered opportunistic interprofessional education, but a more focused approach is needed to maximise student pharmacists’ learning potential.
Conclusion: Most interprofessional education offered in undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom is campus-based; the nature and extent of which varies between programmes. Very few examples of practice-based activities were reported. Results may inform future interprofessional education curricular development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122–130
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Volume46
Early online date3 Nov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • interprofessional education
  • pharmacy education
  • United Kingdom

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