The antileishmanial efficacies of four proprietary amphotericin B (AmB) formulations (Fungizone, AmBisome, Abelcet, and Amphocil) and an experimental nonionic surfactant vesicle (NIV) formulation were compared in a murine model of acute visceral leishmaniasis. By a multiple-dosing regimen, groups of Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice were treated (2.5 mg of AmB per kg of body weight) on days 7 to 11 postinfection with one of the AmB formulations, and parasite burdens were determined on day 18 postinfection. All of the formulations caused significant suppression parasite burdens in spleens (P < 0.01 to 0.0005) and livers (P < 0.0005) compared with those in the spleens and livers of the controls. In addition, a significant suppression of parasite burdens in bone marrow (P < 0.0005) compared to the burdens in the bone marrow of the controls was obtained for all the formulations except Abelcet, which was inactive at this site. On the basis of their overall efficacies (activity against liver, spleen, and bone marrow parasites), the formulations could be ranked as follows: Amphocil = AmBisome > AmB-NIV > Abelcet >> Fungizone. On the basis of spectrophotometric measurements, AmB was shown to exist in a predominantly aggregated state in all of the formulations. Although incubation in 50% serum altered the degree of aggregation, the AmB remained predominantly aggregated, indicating that the AMB-lipid complex in all of the formulations was physically stable. The results of the study showed that antiparasitic efficacy is associated positively with the degree of AmB aggregation in the presence of serum.
- amphotericin B
- visceral leishmaniasis