A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology

Robert K. Henderson, Nick Johnston, Francesco Mattioli Della Rocca, Haochang Chen, David Day-Uei Li, Graham Hungerford, Richard Hirsch, David McLoskey, Philip Yip, David J.S. Birch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A 192 X 128 pixel single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) time-resolved single photon counting (TCSPC) image sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40-nm CMOS technology. The 13% fill factor, 18.4\,\,\mu \text {m} \times 9.2\,\,\mu \text{m} pixel contains a 33-ps resolution, 135-ns full scale, 12-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 0.9-LSB differential and 5.64-LSB integral nonlinearity (DNL/INL). The sensor achieves a mean 219-ps full-width half-maximum (FWHM) impulse response function (IRF) and is operable at up to 18.6 kframes/s through 64 parallelized serial outputs. Cylindrical microlenses with a concentration factor of 3.25 increase the fill factor to 42%. The median dark count rate (DCR) is 25 Hz at 1.5-V excess bias. A digital calibration scheme integrated into a column of the imager allows off-chip digital process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation of every frame on the fly. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) results are presented.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1907-1916
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume54
Issue number7
Early online date5 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

Avalanche diodes
avalanche diodes
Image sensors
CMOS
Photons
Pixels
Microlenses
sensors
photons
Impulse response
pixels
Microscopic examination
temperature compensation
Fluorescence
Calibration
Imaging techniques
converters
impulses
Sensors
counting

Keywords

  • single photon avalanche diode
  • CMOS image sensor
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
  • laser ranging

Cite this

Henderson, Robert K. ; Johnston, Nick ; Mattioli Della Rocca, Francesco ; Chen, Haochang ; Li, David Day-Uei ; Hungerford, Graham ; Hirsch, Richard ; McLoskey, David ; Yip, Philip ; Birch, David J.S. / A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology. In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2019 ; Vol. 54, No. 7. pp. 1907-1916.
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Henderson, RK, Johnston, N, Mattioli Della Rocca, F, Chen, H, Li, DD-U, Hungerford, G, Hirsch, R, McLoskey, D, Yip, P & Birch, DJS 2019, 'A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology' IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1907-1916. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2019.2905163

A 192 X 128 time correlated SPAD image sensor in 40nm CMOS technology. / Henderson, Robert K.; Johnston, Nick; Mattioli Della Rocca, Francesco; Chen, Haochang; Li, David Day-Uei; Hungerford, Graham; Hirsch, Richard; McLoskey, David; Yip, Philip; Birch, David J.S.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 54, No. 7, 31.07.2019, p. 1907-1916.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Henderson, Robert K.

AU - Johnston, Nick

AU - Mattioli Della Rocca, Francesco

AU - Chen, Haochang

AU - Li, David Day-Uei

AU - Hungerford, Graham

AU - Hirsch, Richard

AU - McLoskey, David

AU - Yip, Philip

AU - Birch, David J.S.

N1 - © 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting /republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

PY - 2019/7/31

Y1 - 2019/7/31

N2 - A 192 X 128 pixel single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) time-resolved single photon counting (TCSPC) image sensor is implemented in STMicroelectronics 40-nm CMOS technology. The 13% fill factor, 18.4\,\,\mu \text {m} \times 9.2\,\,\mu \text{m} pixel contains a 33-ps resolution, 135-ns full scale, 12-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 0.9-LSB differential and 5.64-LSB integral nonlinearity (DNL/INL). The sensor achieves a mean 219-ps full-width half-maximum (FWHM) impulse response function (IRF) and is operable at up to 18.6 kframes/s through 64 parallelized serial outputs. Cylindrical microlenses with a concentration factor of 3.25 increase the fill factor to 42%. The median dark count rate (DCR) is 25 Hz at 1.5-V excess bias. A digital calibration scheme integrated into a column of the imager allows off-chip digital process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) compensation of every frame on the fly. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) results are presented.

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KW - single photon avalanche diode

KW - CMOS image sensor

KW - fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

KW - laser ranging

U2 - 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2905163

DO - 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2905163

M3 - Article

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EP - 1916

JO - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

T2 - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

JF - IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits

SN - 0018-9200

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