405 nm light technology for the inactivation of pathogens and its potential role for environmental disinfection and infection control

Michelle MacLean, Karen McKenzie, John Anderson, George Gettinby, Scott MacGregor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Although the germicidal properties of ultraviolet (UV) light have long been known, it is only comparatively recently that the antimicrobial properties of visible violet–blue 405 nm light have been discovered and used for environmental disinfection and infection control applications.

Aim: To review the antimicrobial properties of 405 nm light and to describe its application as an environmental decontamination technology with particular reference to disinfection of the hospital environment.

Methods: Extensive literature searches for relevant scientific papers and reports.

Findings: A large body of scientific evidence is now available that provides underpinning knowledge of the 405 nm light-induced photodynamic inactivation process involved in the destruction of a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial species, including resistant forms such as bacterial and fungal spores. For practical application, a high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental disinfection system (HINS-light EDS) has been developed and tested in hospital isolation rooms. The trial results have demonstrated that this 405 nm light system can provide continuous disinfection of air and exposed surfaces in occupied areas of the hospital, thereby substantially enhancing standard cleaning and infection control procedures.

Conclusion: Violet–blue light, particularly 405 nm light, has significant antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens and, although germicidal efficacy is lower than UV light, this limitation is offset by its facility for safe, continuous use in occupied environments. Promising results on disinfection efficacy have been obtained in hospital trials but the full impact of this technology on reduction of healthcare-associated infection has yet to be determined.
LanguageEnglish
JournalJournal of Hospital Infection
Early online date3 Jul 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Disinfection
Pathogens
Infection Control
Technology
Light
Viola
Ultraviolet Rays
Isolation Hospitals
Bacterial Spores
Fungal Spores
Decontamination
Cross Infection
Cleaning
Air

Keywords

  • light technology
  • inactivation of pathogens
  • environmental disinfection
  • infection control
  • hospital-acquired infection
  • violet–blue 405 nm light
  • disinfection

Cite this

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title = "405 nm light technology for the inactivation of pathogens and its potential role for environmental disinfection and infection control",
abstract = "Background: Although the germicidal properties of ultraviolet (UV) light have long been known, it is only comparatively recently that the antimicrobial properties of visible violet–blue 405 nm light have been discovered and used for environmental disinfection and infection control applications.Aim: To review the antimicrobial properties of 405 nm light and to describe its application as an environmental decontamination technology with particular reference to disinfection of the hospital environment.Methods: Extensive literature searches for relevant scientific papers and reports.Findings: A large body of scientific evidence is now available that provides underpinning knowledge of the 405 nm light-induced photodynamic inactivation process involved in the destruction of a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial species, including resistant forms such as bacterial and fungal spores. For practical application, a high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental disinfection system (HINS-light EDS) has been developed and tested in hospital isolation rooms. The trial results have demonstrated that this 405 nm light system can provide continuous disinfection of air and exposed surfaces in occupied areas of the hospital, thereby substantially enhancing standard cleaning and infection control procedures.Conclusion: Violet–blue light, particularly 405 nm light, has significant antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens and, although germicidal efficacy is lower than UV light, this limitation is offset by its facility for safe, continuous use in occupied environments. Promising results on disinfection efficacy have been obtained in hospital trials but the full impact of this technology on reduction of healthcare-associated infection has yet to be determined.",
keywords = "light technology, inactivation of pathogens, environmental disinfection , infection control, hospital-acquired infection, violet–blue 405 nm light, disinfection",
author = "Michelle MacLean and Karen McKenzie and John Anderson and George Gettinby and Scott MacGregor",
year = "2014",
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AU - Gettinby, George

AU - MacGregor, Scott

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N2 - Background: Although the germicidal properties of ultraviolet (UV) light have long been known, it is only comparatively recently that the antimicrobial properties of visible violet–blue 405 nm light have been discovered and used for environmental disinfection and infection control applications.Aim: To review the antimicrobial properties of 405 nm light and to describe its application as an environmental decontamination technology with particular reference to disinfection of the hospital environment.Methods: Extensive literature searches for relevant scientific papers and reports.Findings: A large body of scientific evidence is now available that provides underpinning knowledge of the 405 nm light-induced photodynamic inactivation process involved in the destruction of a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial species, including resistant forms such as bacterial and fungal spores. For practical application, a high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental disinfection system (HINS-light EDS) has been developed and tested in hospital isolation rooms. The trial results have demonstrated that this 405 nm light system can provide continuous disinfection of air and exposed surfaces in occupied areas of the hospital, thereby substantially enhancing standard cleaning and infection control procedures.Conclusion: Violet–blue light, particularly 405 nm light, has significant antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens and, although germicidal efficacy is lower than UV light, this limitation is offset by its facility for safe, continuous use in occupied environments. Promising results on disinfection efficacy have been obtained in hospital trials but the full impact of this technology on reduction of healthcare-associated infection has yet to be determined.

AB - Background: Although the germicidal properties of ultraviolet (UV) light have long been known, it is only comparatively recently that the antimicrobial properties of visible violet–blue 405 nm light have been discovered and used for environmental disinfection and infection control applications.Aim: To review the antimicrobial properties of 405 nm light and to describe its application as an environmental decontamination technology with particular reference to disinfection of the hospital environment.Methods: Extensive literature searches for relevant scientific papers and reports.Findings: A large body of scientific evidence is now available that provides underpinning knowledge of the 405 nm light-induced photodynamic inactivation process involved in the destruction of a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial species, including resistant forms such as bacterial and fungal spores. For practical application, a high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental disinfection system (HINS-light EDS) has been developed and tested in hospital isolation rooms. The trial results have demonstrated that this 405 nm light system can provide continuous disinfection of air and exposed surfaces in occupied areas of the hospital, thereby substantially enhancing standard cleaning and infection control procedures.Conclusion: Violet–blue light, particularly 405 nm light, has significant antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens and, although germicidal efficacy is lower than UV light, this limitation is offset by its facility for safe, continuous use in occupied environments. Promising results on disinfection efficacy have been obtained in hospital trials but the full impact of this technology on reduction of healthcare-associated infection has yet to be determined.

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