405 nm light exposure of osteoblasts and inactivation of bacterial isolates from arthroplasty patients: potential for new disinfection applications?

Richard McDonald, Sanjay Gupta, Michelle MacLean, Praveen Ramakrishnan, John Anderson, Scott MacGregor, Dominic Meek, Mary Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Infection rates after arthroplasty surgery are between 1-4 %, rising significantly after revision procedures. To reduce the associated costs of treating these infections, and the patients' post-operative discomfort and trauma, a new preventative method is required. High intensity narrow spectrum (HINS) 405 nm light has bactericidal effects on a wide range of medically important bacteria, and it reduced bacterial bioburden when used as an environmental disinfection method in a Medical Burns Unit. To prove its safety for use for environmental disinfection in orthopaedic theatres during surgery, cultured osteoblasts were exposed to HINS-light of intensities up to 15 mW/cm2 for 1 h (54 J/cm2). Intensities of up to 5 mW/cm2 for 1 h had no effect on cell morphology, activity of alkaline phosphatase, synthesis of collagen or osteocalcin expression, demonstrating that under these conditions this dose is the maximum safe exposure for osteoblasts; after exposure to 15 mW/cm2 all parameters of osteoblast function were significantly decreased. Viability (measured by protein content and Crystal Violet staining) of the osteoblasts was not influenced by exposure to 5 mW/cm2 for at least 2 h. At 5 mW/cm2 HINS-light is an effective bactericide. It killed 98.1 % of Staphylococcus aureus and 83.2 % Staphylococcus epidermis populations seeded on agar surfaces, and is active against both laboratory strains and clinical isolates from infected hip and knee arthroplasties. HINS-light could have potential for development as a method of disinfection to reduce transmission of bacteria during arthroplasty, with wider applications in diverse surgical procedures involving implantation of a medical device.

With kind permission of full reproduction from eCM journal (www.ecmjournal.org). Founded by scientists for the benefit of Science rather than profit.
LanguageEnglish
Pages204-214
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Cells and Materials
Volume25
Issue numberMarch
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2013

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Arthroplasty
Disinfection
Osteoblasts
Light
Surgery
Bacteria
Bactericides
Gentian Violet
Theaters
Osteocalcin
Phosphatases
Orthopedics
Burn Units
Knee Replacement Arthroplasties
Collagen
Agar
Alkaline Phosphatase
Profitability
Infection
Staphylococcus

Keywords

  • healthcare associated infections
  • high-intensity narrow-spectrum light
  • disinfection
  • 405 nm light
  • osteoblast cell cultures
  • bactericidal effects
  • staphylococcus

Cite this

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title = "405 nm light exposure of osteoblasts and inactivation of bacterial isolates from arthroplasty patients: potential for new disinfection applications?",
abstract = "Infection rates after arthroplasty surgery are between 1-4 {\%}, rising significantly after revision procedures. To reduce the associated costs of treating these infections, and the patients' post-operative discomfort and trauma, a new preventative method is required. High intensity narrow spectrum (HINS) 405 nm light has bactericidal effects on a wide range of medically important bacteria, and it reduced bacterial bioburden when used as an environmental disinfection method in a Medical Burns Unit. To prove its safety for use for environmental disinfection in orthopaedic theatres during surgery, cultured osteoblasts were exposed to HINS-light of intensities up to 15 mW/cm2 for 1 h (54 J/cm2). Intensities of up to 5 mW/cm2 for 1 h had no effect on cell morphology, activity of alkaline phosphatase, synthesis of collagen or osteocalcin expression, demonstrating that under these conditions this dose is the maximum safe exposure for osteoblasts; after exposure to 15 mW/cm2 all parameters of osteoblast function were significantly decreased. Viability (measured by protein content and Crystal Violet staining) of the osteoblasts was not influenced by exposure to 5 mW/cm2 for at least 2 h. At 5 mW/cm2 HINS-light is an effective bactericide. It killed 98.1 {\%} of Staphylococcus aureus and 83.2 {\%} Staphylococcus epidermis populations seeded on agar surfaces, and is active against both laboratory strains and clinical isolates from infected hip and knee arthroplasties. HINS-light could have potential for development as a method of disinfection to reduce transmission of bacteria during arthroplasty, with wider applications in diverse surgical procedures involving implantation of a medical device.With kind permission of full reproduction from eCM journal (www.ecmjournal.org). Founded by scientists for the benefit of Science rather than profit.",
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405 nm light exposure of osteoblasts and inactivation of bacterial isolates from arthroplasty patients : potential for new disinfection applications? / McDonald, Richard; Gupta, Sanjay; MacLean, Michelle; Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Anderson, John; MacGregor, Scott; Meek, Dominic; Grant, Mary.

In: European Cells and Materials, Vol. 25, No. March, 07.03.2013, p. 204-214 .

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - 405 nm light exposure of osteoblasts and inactivation of bacterial isolates from arthroplasty patients

T2 - European Cells and Materials

AU - McDonald, Richard

AU - Gupta, Sanjay

AU - MacLean, Michelle

AU - Ramakrishnan, Praveen

AU - Anderson, John

AU - MacGregor, Scott

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AU - Grant, Mary

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PY - 2013/3/7

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KW - osteoblast cell cultures

KW - bactericidal effects

KW - staphylococcus

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