25-Hydroxyvitamin D is lower in deprived groups, but is not associated with carotid intima media thickness or plaques: results from pSoBid

Susan Knox, Paul Welsh, Vladimir Bezlyak, Alex McConnachie, Emma Boulton, Kevin A. Deans, Ian Ford, G. David Batty, Harry Burns, Jonathan Cavanagh, Keith Millar, Iain B. McInnes, Jennifer McLean, Yoga Velupillai, Paul Shiels, Carol Tannahill, Chris J. Packard, A. Michael Wallace, Naveed Sattar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The association of the circulating serum vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with atherosclerotic burden is unclear, with previous studies reporting disparate results. Method: Psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid) is a study of participants aged 35-64 years from Glasgow who live at extremes of the socioeconomic spectrum. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25OHD < 25nmol/L, as per convention. Cross-sectional associations between circulating 25OHD concentrations and a range of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biochemistry factors, as well as carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaque presence were assessed in 625 participants. Results: Geometric mean levels of circulating 25OHD were higher among the least deprived (45.6 nmol/L, 1-SD range 24.4-85.5) versus most deprived (34.2 nmol/L, 1-SD range 16.9-69.2; p < 0.0001). In the least deprived group 15% were " deficient" in circulating 25OHD versus 30.8% in the most deprived (χ2 p < 0.0001). Log 25OHD was 27% lower among smokers (p < 0.0001), 20% higher among the physically active versus inactive (p = 0.01), 2% lower per 1 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.0001), and showed expected seasonal variation (χ2 p < 0.0001). Log 25OHD was 13% lower in the most versus least deprived independent of the aforementioned lifestyle confounding factors (p = 0.03). One unit increase in log 25OHD was not associated with atherosclerotic burden in univariable models; cIMT (effect estimate 0.000 mm [95% CI -0.011, 0.012]); plaque presence (OR 0.88 [0.75, 1.03]), or in multivariable models. Conclusion: There is no strong association of 25OHD with cIMT or plaque presence, despite strong evidence 25OHD associates with lifestyle factors and socioeconomic deprivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-441
Number of pages5
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2012


  • 25-Hydoxyvitamin D
  • atherosclerosis
  • intima media thickness
  • plaque
  • socioeconomic deprivation
  • vitamin D


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