2-D optical-CDMA modulation with hard-limiting for automotive time-of-flight LIDAR

Feng-Wen Lo, Guu-Chang Yang, Wei-Yi Lin, Ivan Glesk, Wing C. Kwong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


In this proof-of-principle paper, the application of 2-D optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) modulation to long-range automotive time-of-flight (ToF) light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is studied. The regulations and physical constraints that govern the design parameters are reviewed. Using 2-D carrier-hopping prime codes (CHPCs), the modulation model and a novel 2-D hard-limiting decoder are designed and validated with OptiSystem$^{\rm {TM}}$ simulations. Based on the design parameters, the 2-D CHPCs have six times as many distinct sequences (for sensor identification) as 1-D code sequences. Analytical and simulation studies show that the proposed 2-D OCDMA modulation model can eliminate the near-far (power) problem and support more LiDAR sensors with distinctive ToF tags, greater interference robustness for more simultaneous ToF measurements, and better performance than the 1-D counterparts. The simulation results show that the 2-D model can support four times as many simultaneous emitting sensors without false detections as the 1-D model. In summary, the 2-D OCDMA modulation has more benefits and is more cost efficient overall, even though it is more complex.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7200111
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number6
Early online date8 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2021


  • automotive
  • code division multiple access
  • time-of-flight


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