Dr. Yu is proposing to carry out further research, in order to combat the Shigella bacteria infection, which affects 160 million people per annum worldwide; resulting in 1.1 million deaths of which most affected are children; under 5 years old. The infection could be so severe; the inflammation in the large intestine and rectum cause bleeding and cramps and patients experience excruciating pains, facing death. To make things worse, most of the epidemic strains are now resistant to all antibiotics available to date. Dr. Yu has carried out extensive research on this subject since 1997 and has been co-authored several important papers on Shigella genome research. His attention is now turning to S. sonnei, which seems to be a real threat to modern civilisation, as it is already very prevalent in developed countries, including those newly industrialised countries such as Republic of China, Thailand, and Iran. To combat the S. sonnei infection, Dr. Yu will investigate the genetic variation among S. sonnei strains of a global collection dated back to 1940s by use of a novel Solexa multiplex sequencing approach and the cutting edge instrument LightCycler 480. It is hoped to find the strain's origin and route of evolution, how they acquire antibiotic resistance, and in particular, why young children are so susceptible to S. sonnei infection; this life threatening disease. Dr. Yu is confident, that this study will succeed and the new knowledge obtained will help epidemic surveillance, early diagnosis, and treatment and prevention of Shigella infection.