Personal profile

Personal Statement

I am a scholar, consultant, teacher, and speaker; my book What Every CEO Should Know About AI has been published by the Cambridge University Press in 2022.  My scholarly research focuses on talent, creativity, intuition, and the grandmaster-apprentice relationship.  I conducted in-depth open-ended interviews with 20 top scientists, including 17 Nobel Laureates and two Eckert-Mauchly Award winners, in order to understand the thinking of scientists at the highest level of mastery.  As a practitioner, 1999-2004 I spearheaded the development of AI software, a knowledge-based expert system shell, compared various AI solutions, and explored the validity of AI.  In my consultancy work, I advise companies on AI implementation to support complex decisions through modelling expert knowledge and on fostering grandmaster-apprentice relationships to improve organizational learning.  I have been appointed member of the British Standard Institution's Artificial Intelligence Committee (BSI ART/001).

I am Professor of AI Strategy at the Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde Business School, UK.  I hold two Visiting Professor appointments; one at the Management Department, Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia since 2009.

My paper ‘Thinking together: What makes Communities of Practice work?’ became an instant classic, and is continuously one of the most read papers in Human Relations.  Another paper ‘Understanding intuition: The case for two forms of intuition’ is one of the most read articles in Management Learning.  To date, I have written 30+ journal papers, three authored books, 15 book chapters, and 100+ conference papers, and co-edited the Handbook of Research Methods on Creativity.  I serve on the editorial boards of Management Learning and of Academy of Management Learning & Education.

Since 2017, I delivered 203 keynote and public talks on AI and the Human Mind in New York, London, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Muscat, Lausanne, Birmingham, and Budapest, as well as a TEDx talk.  My talk at the BSI Conference in London in 2020 is available from my YouTube channel.  Based on my 20+ years of research, consultancy and teaching, I argue that in the areas requiring original thinking, extraordinary achievements will come from smart people being supported by smart technology.



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Research Interests

My ambitious aim is to develop a dynamic model and possibly theory of cognition.  I have developed, with my collaborators, a model of knowledge levels which serves as a conceptual framework for the empirical investigation into the highest ‘grandmaster’ level of knowledge.  To this end I conducted 20 in-depth unstructured interviews with grandmasters (17 with Nobel Laureates).

My research in knowledge modelling underlies the development of AI software, a knowledge-based expert system (KBS); resulting in new algorithms, software design, etc.  Conversely, I use AI as a modelling tool in various other research topics.  The process of knowledge engineering is also a research topic on its own right.

Towards a Dynamic Theory of Knowledge

Models of Personal Knowledge

  • Types of personal knowledge
  • Levels of personal knowledge
  • Personal intuition

Models of Personal Knowing Processes

  • Intuitive and integrated rationality
  • Personal learning
  • Personal creativity

Models of Trans-Personal Knowing Processes

  • Knowledge sharing
  • Master-apprentice relationship
  • Executive coaching

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Philosophy of AI

  • The future of AI
  • Validation in expert systems
  • Reductive reasoning in expert systems

Developing AI

  • Hybrid AI
  • Human + AI
  • 3D concept mapping: Doctus Knowledge Galaxy

Using AI

  • Coaching and kb-DSS
  • Knowledge engineering and facilitating
  • Modelling with Doctus KBS

Knowledge-based Strategizing

Managing innovation and knowledge

  • Knowledge management
  • Innovation management
  • Gamification

Knowledge-based decision making

  • Personal decisions
  • Communities and practice
  • Performance and quality

Research Philosophy and Methods

Philosophical approaches and frameworks

  • Process philosophy
  • Transdisciplinarity
  • Investigating the extraordinary

Methodological approaches and frameworks

  • Reflection and reflexivity
  • Against methods
  • Generalizability through iterative learning

Applied Research Methods

  • Insider Explanatory Phenomenology
  • Intuitive Cyclic Phenomenology
  • Cognitive and causal mapping


Philosophy and Methods of Teaching and Learning

  • Online teaching and learning
  • Grandmaster-apprentice relationship
  • Post-experiential education


Expertise & Capabilities

My research, teaching and knowledge exchange activities are intertwined.  In my teaching I use my research results as well as illustrative examples from my consultancy, my consultancy is informed by my research and also provides data as well as new ideas for further research and also on how to teach particular topics, and so forth in cycles.  In this sense my expertise can be divided into two main areas:

Knowledge and Knowing

I have done a great deal of research into the personal as well as transpersonal aspects of knowledge and knowing and also worked with various organisations on making better use of what they know.  I can primarily help organisations in fostering their talents, including grandmaster-apprentice relationships.  Related further topics include creativity and intuition at a personal level and Communities of Practice (CoPs) at the transpersonal level.  These topics have strong links to the following topics on supporting these knowing processes with AI.

Artificial Intelligence

My research has served as a basis for developing AI software, a knowledge-based expert system (KBS); in harmony with the above, the focus is on creating qualitative models of expert-level knowledge.  I was leading the development of AI software 1999-2004, and as knowledge engineer I used it to support knowledge workers in general and C-level decision makers in particular in a wide range of decision situations, including outsourcing, product launch, tendering (both applying for tenders as well as evaluating applications), performance evaluation for knowledge workers, medical diagnosis, R&D decisions, and credit risk evaluation.

Teaching Interests

Knowledge & Innovation Management (UG, MOOC)

I have recently developed a new knowledge and innovation management course organised around four themes: the structure of personal knowledge, the processes of personal knowing, the organisational aspects of knowledge management, and innovation in organisations.  This topic also served as the starting point for developing my first MOOC ‘Understanding Modern Business & Organisations’.

Artificial Intelligence (UG, MSc, MBA, MOOC)

Teaching information systems from a managerial perspective in organisational context, my focus in Information Management is on the human-computer connection; i.e. what should be computerised and what left to humans.  The covered technologies range from databases through expert systems, corporate portals and social media and collaboration tools to smart technologies and artificial intelligence.  The most recent development of this topic is embodied in my second MOOC ‘Understanding Information & Technology Today’.

Making Strategy (MBA)

This class originally developed by Prof Colin Eden at Strathclyde, focuses on the process of strategy making using causal maps as transitional objects.  The process is formalised, governed by procedural justice and procedural rationality.  In this class ‘strategy’ is about agreeing where to focus energy, cash, effort, and emotion.  Making Strategy is rooted in the personal construct theory, the resource-based view, competence-based management, emergent strategising, and solving messy problems.

Research Philosophy (doctoral level)

This is a compulsory module for all the research students at the University of Strathclyde Business School. A 5-day intensive classroom-based course is followed by a prolonged online collaborative learning in a virtual learning environment. I encourage students to develop their philosophical stance through independent thinking rather than finding their boxes.

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being
  • SDG 4 - Quality Education
  • SDG 8 - Decent Work and Economic Growth
  • SDG 9 - Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure
  • SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
  • SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals

Education/Academic qualification

Doctor of Philosophy, Model of Learning Ability, University of Strathclyde

Award Date: 15 Dec 2005

Master of Business Administration, ISO for R&D: Quality Evaluation of Non-Typified Processes, Technical University of Budapest

Award Date: 19 Jun 1999

Master of Education, Conception of Quality Assurance System for Educational Institutions, Technical University of Budapest

Award Date: 17 Jun 1998

Master of Economics, European Union and Logistics, Budapest University of Economic Sciences

Award Date: 20 Jun 1997

Master of Engineering, Examining Stability of Multi-Level Marketing Systems, Technical University of Budapest

Award Date: 16 Jun 1995

External positions

Visiting Professor, Doctoral School of Regional and Business Administration Sciences, Széchenyi University, Győr

2021 → …

Visiting Professor, Management Department, Faculty of Economics & Business, University of Zagreb, Zagreb

2009 → …


  • personal knowledge
  • organisational learning
  • expert systems
  • knowledge sharing
  • creativity
  • communities of practice


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