• United Kingdom

1989 …2019
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Personal profile

Research Interests

  • Bioinformatics. Software for topological analysis and interpretation, leading to prediction of topomorphic sites in biological macromolecules. Application to discovery of new generation of topomorphic drugs and understanding the process of natural evolution for application to protein engineering. Collaborative partners: Dept of Computer & Information Sciences (Dr John Wilson);   Dept of Pharmacy (Prof Simon Mackay).
  • Snake venom chemistry, especially the supportive role of venom enzymes in enhancing the efficacy of the key toxins. Collaborative partner: Dr John Parkinson (Pure & Applied Chemistry). Venom action, as a guide for the development of protein-based drugs and strategies for enhancing the speed and efficacy of drug delivery.
  • Biomolecular structures and mechanisms, and their evolutionary history.
  • Role of biomolecule chain fold topology in determining directionality of structural and functional evolution.
  • Drug action through site specific perturbation of chain fold topologies in proteins and nucleic acids.

Industrial Relevance

Bioinformatic Research

Industrial drug discovery is presently a very expensive, time consuming and risky business.  A great deal of time and money (£millions to £billions) could be saved by the pharma industry with the aid of an automated “first step” that accurately identifies candidate druggable sites in proteins and nucleic acids associated with disease states.  Furthermore, if these candidate sites offer a better and safer mode of action for drugs compared to conventionally designed drugs, then the risk of a prolonged investment resulting in an unusable drug is also reduced.

The bioinformatic research we have undertaken over the last 15 years has resulted in the SID technology for the systematic analysis of protein and nucleic acid 3D structures.  It establishes the potential for adjustment of these macromolecules by site-specific mutation or small/large molecule binding.  The SID technology is a fully tested, versatile, fast and easy to use software suite that is applicable to the 70,000 + biomolecule 3D structures held in the international databases.  Presently unpublished uncirculated, and owned entirely by the university, it is being retained in house to protect its substantial revenue-earning potential.  Industrial customers can obtain results for particular drug targets by contractual arrangement with the university (RKES).

We have also used the SID technology to create our own results database for all the targets (70,000 +) that can be analysed.  This raises the possibility of selling the complete database or “niche” databases relating to one type of drug target.

Snake Venom Research 

A century from now, many of the drugs presently in common use will be regarded in the same light as we now view the various remedies available in the Victorian era.  They will be seen as unsubtle, too toxic, based on misunderstandings, insufficiently targeted in their action and surprisingly ineffective given the high doses that need to be taken.  On the other hand, snake venoms show just what is achievable given an appropriate route of entry, high information content molecules (proteins) and a complimentary selection of enzymes and other factors to allow fast and selective target acquisition.  It is inevitable that a full understanding of venom molecule structures and strategies will prompt revolutions in drug design and switch attention away from small molecule “organic” drugs towards multifunctional proteins that can act at very small doses with exquisite speed and selectivity.

The enzyme system currently under investigation is associated with lowering bodily defence mechanisms. When accompanying conventional drugs, there is a clear possibility that these enzymes could allow the drugs to act faster from a smaller dose level.  For the drug industry, where new drugs often fail to reach market because the necessary dose levels are too toxic, the results of this research have a clear value.

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Network Recent external collaboration on country level. Dive into details by clicking on the dots.

Projects 2005 2017

SID technology

Wilson, J. N. & Dufton, M.

1/04/08 → …

Project: Internally funded project

food security
plant protection
human health

Research Output 1989 2019

  • 13 Article
  • 2 Conference contribution book
  • 2 Review article
  • 1 Other contribution
1 Downloads (Pure)

Metabolomic profiling of the immune stimulatory effect of eicosenoids on PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells

Alqarni, A. M., Dissanayake, T., Nelson, D. J., Parkinson, J. A., Dufton, M. J., Ferro, V. A. & Watson, D. G., 9 Oct 2019, In : Vaccines. 7, 4, 26 p., 142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
Bee Venoms
Immune System
4 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)

Effect of melittin on metabolomic profile and cytokine production in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells

Alqarni, A. M., Ferro, V. A., Parkinson, J. A., Dufton, M. J. & Watson, D. G., 13 Oct 2018, In : Vaccines. 6, 4, 21 p., 72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access


A robust machine learning approach for the prediction of allosteric binding sites

Author: Vassileiou, A., 1 Oct 2016

Supervisor: Johnston, B. (Supervisor) & Dufton, M. (Supervisor)

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

A study of the biological activity of bee venom and its fractions with regard to cosmetic science and immunology

Author: Tusiimire, J., 1 Jan 2016

Supervisor: Watson, D. (Supervisor) & Dufton, M. (Supervisor)

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

Activities 2008 2011

  • 3 Invited talk
  • 1 Oral presentation

Strathclyde S100 Event

Mark Dufton (Speaker)
26 May 2011

Activity: Talk or presentation typesOral presentation

RSC Perkin, Dundee

Mark Dufton (Invited speaker)
Jan 2008Dec 2013

Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk


A unique computer technology for the accelerated discovery of drugs that “shape-shift” proteins refocuses and expands a U.S. Drug Discovery company

Mark Dufton (Participant), John N. Wilson (Participant)

Impact: Impact - for External PortalEconomic and commerce, Health and welfare - new products, guidelines and services


Bee venom research drives industrial Drug Discovery initiative in Republic of Korea

Mark Dufton (Participant), David Watson (Participant), John Parkinson (Participant)

Impact: Impact - for External PortalEconomic and commerce, Health and welfare - new products, guidelines and services