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The springback associated with cold deep drawing of sheet metals leads to undesired dimensional changes in the final products. This is often due to the heterogeneous plastic deformation in different areas of the intended geometry that creates various stress states throughout the part. The major objective of this study is to understand the interconnection between springback, level of plastic deformation, degradation of elastic modulus and strain recovery in a CP-Ti material. The mechanical properties of the sheet material and the dependency of mechanical properties on directionality are investigated by examining samples from three orientations of parallel to the rolling direction (RD), at 45° to RD and perpendicular to RD. The degradation of elastic modulus as a function of level of plastic deformation was explored for 0° and 45° samples by conducting multi-step uniaxial loading-unloading in tension.
The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties vary for each direction, with the lowest elastic modulus along RD. A significant degradation was observed in elastic modulus (up to 50% reduction) with increased plastic deformation. This resulted in more strain relaxation compared to that associated with the initial elastic modulus. For stresses below 100MPa, a nonlinear (plastic) recovery was observed, resulting in additional relaxation in the total strain upon load removal in each step of the interrupted tests. This plastic recovery behaviour is observed to be dependent on sample orientation. It is concluded that accurate prediction of springback during sheet metal forming, requires a material model which takes into accounts the directional degradation of elastic modulus and the plastic recovery as a function of plastic deformation.