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Weld clad low alloy carbon steel has been shown to improve resistance to fatigue failure due to the generation of compressive residual stress in the clad layer, depending on the material used for cladding. The current paper summarises the results of investigations on the magnitude and distribution of residual stress in these weld clad components, undertaken using different techniques including X-ray diffraction, and incremental centre hole drilling based on both strain gauge rosettes and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Results confirm the presence of tensile residual stress when cladding with Inconel 625 beyond the initial clad profile and compressive residual stress when cladding with 17-4 PH steel. The complementary nature of XRD and hole drilling techniques is highlighted with considerations regarding the weld clad profile and stress distribution with depth.
Modelling of residual stress induced by weld cladding using a thermal transient analysis is presented. Simplification of the weld cladding process is shown to provide good correlation with experimentally measured residual stress. Complexities in modelling material behaviour and hence accurate prediction of residual stress are discussed. Chemical composition of the weld into the heat-affected zone and substrate is presented for both weld clad materials, highlighting the effects of alloying and diffusion on chemical composition. Given the complexities in obtaining accurate thermo-mechanical material properties required for modelling, and that residual stress profiles are measured to a limited depth into the clad layer, recommendations are made for the continuation of both experimental and simulation studies.